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蜘蛛
你喜歡養毛蜘蛛嗎?或者從小對牆壁上的蠅虎,長腳蜘蛛相當著迷?這是一個蜘蛛的討論園地.讓我們像法布爾那樣觀察蜘蛛生態,記下有趣的點點滴滴~

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舊 2016-12-17, 10:23 AM   #1
野人
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註冊日期: 2004-05-16
文章: 9,879
野人 是一個將要出名的人 野人 是一個將要出名的人
預設 蜘蛛也有個性差異哦~

這篇 ScienceDaily 報導:
Temperature helps drive the emergence of different personalities in spiders

大概是說,美國北卡羅來納大學教堂山分校(University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill)的研究人員發現蜘蛛也有不同的個性,而且不同個性間可能存在合作度過極端溫度變化的生存策略。

科學家研究的蜘蛛是一種棲息在北美洲名為 Anelosimus studiosus 的粗腳姬蛛,這是少數幾種營社會性生活的蜘蛛之一。牠們通常是六隻雌蛛一起在樹叢間織網,並長期共同分擔照顧下一代的工作。

科學家發現這種蜘蛛在同一巢群內,個體性格有溫馴和具有侵略性兩類差異,溫馴的負責育幼,而比較兇的就擔負捕獵覓食的工作,兩者能夠共同生活相安無事。

科學家發現當氣溫愈高時,恰北北蜘蛛會更難生存和繁殖,而和事佬蜘蛛的情況則剛好相反。所以如果巢內都只有一類個性,那麼不是高溫藍瘦,就是低溫香菇了。這樣的巢群會生活艱難。這個溫度範圍在華氏 75~93 度間。也就是攝氏23.9~33.9 度的這十度是牠們個別都能存活的溫度區間。

但科學家卻發現有趣的事實,他們在一整窩都恰北北的巢群裡放進和事佬作伴後,巢群卻能在一反常態地在高溫下過得幸福又快樂(存活率和繁殖率都保持住了)。這暗示著是這小小蜘蛛社會竟能透過社會分工合作互補了個體間的不足。

研究報告裡的摘要:

Understanding the ecological and evolutionary consequences of individual behavioral variation has become a major focus in behavioral ecology, yet we still know remarkably little about how abiotic and biotic factors influence personality-dependent fitness trade-offs in naturally occurring systems. In particular, fitness trade-offs associated with abiotic factors remain underrepresented in the animal personality literature. Here, we examine the interacting effects of personality and temperature on survival and reproduction—both at the individual and colony level—using the socially polymorphic spider Anelosimus studiosus as a model system. Overall, temperature had a profound effect on survival and reproduction, but the effect differed according to both individual personality and the personality composition of colonies. Temperature was positively correlated with mortality rates but negatively correlated with reproductive rates in aggressive individuals, whereas the opposite was true in docile individuals. Colonies composed of either all aggressive or all docile individuals suffered reduced reproductive rates in high and low temperatures, respectively. In contrast, colonies composed of a mixture of aggressive and docile individuals performed equally well at both high and low temperatures, suggesting that some aspect of colony living helps buffer individuals with ill-suited personalities from environmental conditions that would otherwise lead to their demise. Our study demonstrates the need to consider both abiotic and biotic (i.e., social) context when assessing the impact of personality on fitness.

詳見:Behavioral Ecology - Thermal effects on survival and reproductive performance vary according to personality type
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